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Hatching occurs within 4–18 days, larvae are pelagic and remain in the water column between 44 (H. Ecological studies done in California revealed that the three Hypsoblennius species have very similar feeding habits, yet they also show important ecological differences (Stephens et al., 1970). gilberti, lives mostly in the upper intertidal in rocky pools, and occasionally in the very shallow subtidal, while the mussel blenny, H.
jenkinsi, lives exclusively subtidally in mussel, barnacle, and boring clam burrows.
Here, we used three sympatric California blennies (genus Hypsoblennius), where two species have disjunct populations and one does not.
Based on one mitochondrial and one nuclear molecular marker, we found that the two disjunct species exhibit different genetic patterns, one species showing disjunct populations as reciprocally monophyletic assemblages, while the other species showed evidence of gene flow between disjunct populations. gilberti, exhibits high gene flow along the California and Baja California coasts. Phylogeography of the California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher: the role of deep reefs as stepping stones and pathways to antitropicality.
The mussel blenny is a sedentary species, while the rockpool blenny has much larger territories. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes.
For all species, the male produces pheromones to attract females and after benthic spawning, guards a nest (Losey, 1969). gilberti), suggesting that all three species have large dispersal potentials (Riginos and Victor, 2001; Shanks and Eckert, 2005; Selkoe and Toonen, 2011).
This is rarely done because there are few cases where related species that are amenable to a comparative phylogeographic approach live in sympatry (Crow et al., 2010; Bird et al., 2011).
Here, we use three congeneric blennies (genus Hypsoblennius) as a model system to assess patterns of population genetic structuring and speciation.
Most phylogeographic studies of marine organisms have traditionally focused on abiotic factors, such as oceanographic characteristics that affect larval dispersal, and historical factors that produce vicariant events (Avise, 2000; White et al., 2010; Bowen et al., 2014). Ecological traits influencing range expansion across large oceanic dispersal barriers: insights from tropical Atlantic reef fishes.
However, recently, in part due to a better understanding of larval behavior (Jones et al., 1999; Swearer et al., 1999), the role of larval dispersal has been de-emphasized, and the role of adult ecology has taken a more prominent role (Luiz et al., 2011, 2013).